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SPRING INTO FUN GET ROOTED WITH OUTDOOR FAMILY At Outdoor Family, we want to provide you with all of the simplest ways to spend time outside as a family. Whether you want to find the easiest ways to incorporate kids of all ages in the garden, or you are looking for building plans for the perfect mud kitchen, you’ll find everything you need at From gardening to hiking to camping and adventures at home, “dig in” to the info you need for getting kids outside and unplugged for spring, summer and beyond. @youroutdoorfamily

WebsiteCompass 1 8 Contents WebsiteCompass 18 Website Compass™ is a publication of Cornerstone Publishing Group, Inc. 4815 Caravelle Drive Fort Collins, CO 80526 970-818-5012 ISSN 1525-951X No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, electronic, photocopying, recording, mechanical, or otherwise without prior written permission of the publisher. Website Compass™ is a trademark of Cornerstone Publishing Group, Inc. Copyright© 2024 by Cornerstone Publishing Group, Inc. All rights reserved. TRADEMARKS – All brand names and product names used in this publication are trade names, service marks, trademarks, or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Website Compass magazine is an independent magazine and is not affiliated with, nor has it been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by Microsoft Corporation, Google, Pinterest, Twitter, and Facebook. All screen shots are the property of their respective owners. ADVERTISERS – To obtain advertising information, contact: Cornerstone Publishing Group, Inc. 4815 Caravelle Drive Fort Collins, CO 80526 970-818-5012 INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS – To obtain additional information about distribution of Website Compass magazine to your internet subscribers and a free customized online version of Website Compass, contact: Shane Petersen Cornerstone Publishing Group, Inc. 4815 Caravelle Drive Fort Collins, CO 80526 970-818-5012 Cornerstone Publishing Group, Inc. (the Author and Publisher) as well as any participating Internet Service Provider Partners hereby disclaim all warranties relating to Website Compass magazine or its website, whether expressed or implied, including without limitation any implied warrantied of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Although the Author and its ISP Partners believe the information provided is accurate, neither party claims responsibility for any damage or loss of data to a user’s computer caused by utilizing this information. The Author and its ISP Partners will not be liable for any special, incidental, consequential, indirect, or similar damages due to loss of data or any other reason when utilizing information/tutorials from Website Compass magazine or its websites. In no event shall the Author or ISP Partner be liable for any damages, regardless of the form of the claim. The person using the information contained in Website Compass magazine bears all risk as to the use of the information provided. Cornerstone Group is not responsible for the quality, performance, or reliability of third-party tools or software. 2 10 16 13 FEATURE STORY 2 It’s a Stellar Year for Space Prepare for planetary exploration, moon missions, asteroid research, and more INTERNET CONNECTIONS 8 Browse the Best Biography Sites Reading about other’s lives can help guide your own SOCIAL MEDIA BASICS 10 Granfluencers Take Social Media by Storm Older content creators offer wisdom, warmth, and wit BACK TO BASICS 13 Only Criminals Win in Sweepstakes Scams The phrase, “You get a prize!” isn’t always good news BEYOND THE BASICS 16 You May Not Need a Home Printer There are ways to avoid owning this annoying piece of equipment FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 18 Ask Dr. Webbie Answers to your internet questions A TO Z 19 Internet Glossary Words and definitions Tutorials in This Issue 12 How to Find Granfluencers 12 How to Meet Granfluencers 15 What to Do if You Paid a Scammer 15 What to Do if You Gave a Scammer Personal Information

America’s National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) alone is preparing missions to research Mars, study the moons of other planets, and send robots to our own moon. Other countries, including Japan and China, are undertaking similar missions that will help our understanding of the solar system we all share. Additionally, Europe is planning a mission to study the results of an asteroid redirection conducted by NASA in 2021. Space tourism is becoming more widespread, with the introduction of regular space flights and plans to build space hotels. To top it all off, parts of the U.S. will be in the path of a total solar eclipse. In the following pages, we’ll help you understand these fascinating space events and know what to watch for as you explore them. We’ll also share where to go online for more information. So, buckle up and get ready for lift-off to discover wonders that are literally out of this world! Since so much is happening on Earth in 2024, it could be easy to overlook what’s going on around it. But you won’t want to miss the many exciting missions planned for this year by space agencies around the globe. IT’S A STELLAR YEAR FOR SPACE Prepare for planetary exploration, moon missions, asteroid research, and more QUICK TIP: Use apps like Sky Map (for Android) or Night Sky (for iOS) to identify stars and other objects. 2 WebsiteCompass

WebsiteCompass 3 NASA is a U.S. government agency responsible for spaceflight capabilities and research in space. It was started in 1958 by President Eisenhower. What Does NASA Actually Do? The agency supports five primary divisions, called directorates, as follows: Aeronautics The aeronautics directorate works to develop technology to improve efficiency and maintain safety for planes and control equipment. Because this work touches every U.S. commercial aircraft and control tower, the group proclaims, “NASA is with you when you fly!” Exploration Systems The exploration systems directorate develops systems needed for exploration programs, including those involving the Moon and Mars. These activities include both human and scientific aspects of the Artemis II crewed mission to the Moon, planned for 2025. Science The science directorate oversees research programs. It uses a unique approach in which “discoveries in one scientific discipline have a direct route to other areas of study,” according to NASA’s website. This group relies on both internal agency personnel and the wider scientific community to suggest and prioritize matters to pursue. Space Operations The space operations directorate manages operations including commercial launch services to the International Space Station (ISS). The group operates exploration and space transportation systems and performs scientific research. It also oversees communication and navigation services for the agency. Space Technology The space technology directorate tests and develops technologies on the Moon that will eventually contribute to missions on Mars. To get the best possible results, it collaborates with governmental, commercial, and international partners. The group makes the resulting technology available to commercial companies which, in turn, develop products that help humanity. To learn more about NASA’s work and see fascinating mission information and photos, visit the agency’s website at Here’s Why Space Exploration is Worthwhile With themany problems facing humanity right here on Earth, you may wonder why we choose to spend resources on exploring space. There are several reasons: • NASA’s programs have a positive impact on the economy. They create jobs, technological advancements, and business opportunities for contractors and others that support the work. • Studying how things work on other planets provides important information that can be used on Earth. • Learning about the harsher environments on other planets makes us appreciate life on Earth more. • Studying asteroids and comets can help us defend ourselves if one of these objects becomes a threat to life on Earth. • The vastness of space and themysteries of the systems and bodies within it are inspiring and stir the imagination. Finally, space exploration isn’t as expensive as you might think. According to The Planetary Society, “NASA’s budget only represents about 0.5% of the total federal budget.” Source: QUICK TIP: Virtually visit the ISS at

4 WebsiteCompass Don’t Miss These Moon Missions NASA is planning Moon missions this year, including the deployment of Moon landers and Lunar Trailblazer. Other countries are sending spacecraft to the Moon as well. Moon Landers NASA will send several land robots to the Moon in 2024 to collect important scientific data. They include VIPER, which will collect soil samples; PRIME-1, which will analyze ice samples; and Blue Ghost Mission 1, which will study heat flow in the Moon’s interior. Lunar Trailblazer Lunar Trailblazer’s purpose is also to collect information and study specific aspects of the Moon. It will look for water, but not from the surface. Instead, it will orbit the Moon, “measuring the temperature of the surface and mapping out the locations of water molecules across the globe,” according to PBS. Foreign Moon Missions The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) wasted no time in getting its Moon mission underway this year. It successfully landed the Smart Lander for Investigating Moon (SLIM) on January 19 with the intention of using it to test technology and collect images. However, upon landing, the craft was unable to draw power from its power supply and JAXA announced it was shutting down the lander. The agency is considering restarting it at a later date. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) has plans to send a set of four spacecraft to the Moon. This mission is known as Chang’e-6, and it follows up on the work of the Chang’e-5 mission, which collected lunar material from the near side of the Moon. The craft will land on the far side of the Moon, collect samples, and deliver the samples back to Earth. The launch is scheduled for May 2024. Source: 6-space-missions-to-look-forward-to-in-2024 Help Kids Explore Space from Home Many kids are fascinated by rockets and space travel. If there are future astronauts in your family, help them take their interest to the next level with resources such as these: • Kids Astronomy by Star Walk 2 (download from your app store) is an educational game that gives players the opportunity to explore the solar system, planets, stars, constellations, and more. • NASA Kids’ Club ( provides games, hands-on projects, videos, and other activities to help kids learn about space. • National Geographic Passport to Space (kids.nationalgeographic. com/space) is a great place to explore the wonders of space with games, videos, and other information. • YouTube ( includes numerous videos about space-related topics designed specifically for kids. Another way for kids to learn about space is in a hands-on environment. Is there an observatory or planetarium in your area? Go online to find out what experiences they offer. QUICK TIP: Visit 55-earths-moon-formationcomposition-and-orbit.html to learn more about the Moon. Feature Story

WebsiteCompass 5 Scientists can learn a lot about our solar system by studying data from previous missions and through continued observations from Earth. But additional missions really add to their (and our) understanding. That’s why entities in the U.S. and other countries are conducting missions to visit various planets this year. Space Agencies Scope Out the Solar System NASA’s Plans In October 2024, NASA plans to send two satellites, nicknamed Blue and Gold, to orbit Mars. According to Live Science, “The satellites are part of the Escape and Plasma Acceleration and Dynamics Explorers (EscaPADE) mission to study how the Martian atmosphere interacts with solar wind.” Japan Goes to Mars Japan also plans to study Mars by sending a spacecraft, Martian Moons eXploration (MMX), on a mission to Phobos, Mars’ largest moon. Launching in September 2024, MMX should establish an orbit around Phobos in 2025. It will then land a module that will collect material from the surface. It’s expected to return with the collected sample in 2029. An Otherworldly Ocean NASA will also study an otherworldly moon, Jupiter’s Europa, which is believed to contain a potentially life-supporting saltwater ocean beneath its icy exterior. The Europa Clipper will launch in October 2024 and is expected to enter an orbit around Jupiter in 2030. During dozens of flybys of Europa, it will gather information and identify possible sites for future landings. Additionally, the U.S.-based private company Rocket Lab will send a spacecraft to Venus to look for organic material in the planet’s atmosphere. The Venus Life Finder is scheduled to leave Earth in December 2024 and reach Venus a year and a half later. QUICK TIP: If you’ll be viewing the eclipse, visit articles/eclipsesafety.htm to learn how to do it safely. Total Solar Eclipse Offers Scientific Opportunities On April 8, 2024, a total solar eclipse will be visible in parts of Mexico, the U.S., and Canada. Americans outside of those areas are making travel plans and with good reason. The next time a total solar eclipse will be visible within the contiguous U.S. isn’t until 2044. Scientists are especially eager to view the eclipse because the event offers the opportunity to study how the sun interacts with Earth. Past solar eclipses supported the discovery of helium and provided evidence for the theory of general relativity. In hopes of learning more, NASA is funding several projects that will take place during the event. One project involves capturing images of the eclipse from far above Earth’s surface to learn more about the sun’s corona. In another, radio operators will try to determine how eclipses change the way radio waves travel. Learn more at

6 WebsiteCompass Feature Story Preparing for the Next Asteroid Impact According to NASA, “Asteroids, sometimes called minor planets, are rocky, airless remnants left over from the early formation of our solar system about 4.6 billion years ago.” Asteroids move through space unpredictably, meaning the potential exists for them to collide with Earth. While the risk of one large enough to cause significant damage doing so anytime soon is minimal, astronomers keep their eyes on the skies to help prepare for this eventuality. The DART Mission Scientists also work to find ways to mitigate the damage in the event of an asteroid collision. One method tested by NASA in 2021 was the use of a spacecraft to ram into an asteroid to divert its course away from Earth. This effort was called the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission. Because it did change the orbit of the target asteroid, it was considered a success. Now another major space agency, the ESA, seeks to study the aftermath. The Hera Mission The asteroid targeted by the DART mission is called Dimorphos and it orbits another asteroid, Didymos. On the Hera mission under development by the ESA, a probe along with two smaller CubeStats will study the pair by taking detailed measurements of the outcome of the DART mission. This information will increase the world’s understanding of asteroid properties, serve to inform future asteroid deflection missions, and help space agencies across the globe create useful planetary defense strategies. The Hera mission is planned to launch in October 2024, with the expectation that it will reach Dimorphos in late 2026 or early 2027. To learn more about this exciting mission, visit the Hera section of the ESA’s website at What Are the Chances of an Asteroid Hitting Earth? The level of damage that can be done by asteroids and other near-earth objects (NEOs) depends on their size. Many scientists believe that an enormous (six miles in diameter) asteroid 65 million years ago was the cause of major planetary disruption and the extinction of dinosaurs and other life. However, according to StarDate, the chance that an object large enough to cause regional or global damage will hit in any given year is only 1 in 300,000. Smaller objects known as meteorites land without doing much harm. And much smaller objects (around the size of a grain of sand) appear as shooting stars before they land on Earth. Given the potential damage, astronomers use telescopes to monitor the sky for NEOs. According to, astronomers have determined that Earth probably won’t be struck by a large (at least .6 mile in diameter) asteroid for at least 1,000 years. QUICK TIP: See a diagram of nearby asteroids at eyes.nasa. gov/apps/asteroids/#/home.

WebsiteCompass 7 Space tourism is similar to conventional tourism in that it involves exploring places away from home. However, space tourism is much more dangerous and complex. Space Tourism is Taking Off Early Trips The first space tourism trip took place in 2001. American engineer and entrepreneur Dennis Tito was among the passengers on the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32, which traveled to the ISS. The trip lasted eight days. Since then, numerous other space tourists from various countries have visited ISS or been passengers on sub-orbital (near Earth) and low Earth (further away from Earth) orbit spaceflights. Billionaire CEOs Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson famously joined sub-orbital spaceflights in 2021. Concerns While a space tourism trip may sound like the adventure of a lifetime, anyone considering it should be aware of potential concerns. They include health risks such as radiation exposure, cardiovascular stress, muscle atrophy, and impaired vision. Environmental issues are another concern, in the form of climate-damaging soot and other pollution. Space tourism also holds the potential for unsafe equipment or environments in which accidents could occur. Companies A number of companies are early providers of space tourism services: • Axiom Space, whose space tourism customers include researchers, filmmakers, and photographers • Blue Origin, founded in 2000 by Jeff Bezos • SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk in 2002 • Virgin Galactic, whose first spaceflight occurred in 2018 • Zephalto, which offers space travel experiences in stratospheric balloons With all the activity and excitement surrounding the space tourism industry, it’s expected to grow from $765.44 million in 2022 to around $9 billion in 2030. Trips to ISS by private citizens have cost tens of millions of dollars but experts expect that cost to decline over time. QUICK TIP: View amazing visualizations of the galaxy at Going to Space Becomes Affordable-ish If you’re wondering if it’s possible for you to become a space tourist, the answer is, technically, yes. Currently companies like Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic are providing brief suborbital flights with costs as low as $250,000. While that’s still a lot of money, it’s considerably less than the tens of millions paid by non-astronauts who have traveled to more distant destinations. Here’s how Travel + Leisure described the Blue Origin trip, which launches from Van Horn, Texas: “[A] rocket fires a capsule containing up to six people (but no pilot) into space, which then parachutes down 15 minutes later.” The Virgin Galactic experience involves a rocket-powered spaceplane that houses six passengers and two pilots. It takes off from a spaceport near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, spends a few minutes in space, and returns to Earth on a runway.

8 WebsiteCompass Internet Connections Thanks to the internet, you don’t need to spend a fortune on printed biographies at a bookstore or even make a trip to the library. Whenever you want to learn about a renowned person, whether living or dead, you can simply visit one of these excellent websites featuring biographies. There’s something for everyone here! Biography ( launched in 1996 and is one of the most well-known websites for memoirs, interviews, and life stories. The People section has grown to more than 3,000 profiles and covers everyone from actors to scientists. On its home page, features Notable Now, Notorious Figures and Acts, Culture, People You Should Know, and The Latest. You’ll also find entire categories dedicated to History & Culture, Musicians, Movies & TV, and Athletes. Most of Biography’s content takes a long-form article approach and may include how the person’s contributions fit within the broader societal and historical context. If you enjoy the main website, be sure to check out Biography’s YouTube channel for brief videos. You can also sign up to receive Biography’s newsletter to get a closer look at the lives of extraordinary people. Academy of Achievement ( The Academy of Achievement aims to provide readers with insight into the visionaries and pioneers who have shaped the modern world around us. It encourages all of us to study these Browse the Best Biography Sites Reading about other’s lives can help guide your own Biography is the earliest literary genre in history, dating back to private tomb inscriptions from the 26th century BC—commemorative biographical texts recounting the careers of deceased high royal officials. Ever since, the stories of notable people’s lives have allowed readers to learn from the experience of others and be inspired by their accomplishments.

WebsiteCompass 9 unique figures from our common heritage and discover how their inspirational life stories can be used to create roadmaps to our own successful destinations. You can access complete biographies, samples of work, images, interviews, video content, and more. The categories include The Arts, Business, Science and Exploration, Public Service, and Sports, and the website is searchable by name, career, or personality trait. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame ( Rock’s highest honor is to be inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Search by category or name to learn more about the 378 legends who have shaped rock & roll history since 1986, including the 2023 inductees: Kate Bush, Sheryl Crow, Missy Elliott, George Michael, Willie Nelson, Rage Against the Machine, and The Spinners. Women’s History Month ( This is a comprehensive resource on the lives of women who have impacted history through the ages. While the month of the celebration itself is March, you can visit and enjoy this website and its massive amount of content throughout the year. The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution, and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in commemorating and encouraging the study, observance, and celebration of the vital role of women in American history. Presidents of the United States ( The POTUS (Presidents of the United States) website provides brief biographies of the men who have led our country as well as links to other biographical content and historical documents such as their inaugural addresses. You’ll also find “On This Date in POTUS History” and a featured “POTUS Quote.” Biographies Can Help Us in ManyWays There’s always something to be learned by studying the lives of other people. That’s why reading biographies can be more than just entertaining or engaging. They can also inspire you to take a much-needed step in your life or strengthen your resolve to bravely face a difficult challenge. There are other reasons to include biographies in the content you consume. Biographies can help all of us: • Empathize with the struggles of other people. • See that we’re not alone in our problems. There are ways through them. • Learn from the mistakes of others and apply that knowledge to ourselves. • Serve as inspiration when we’re looking for ways to improve our lives. • Understand how personality influences our life choices. • Explore how to live a good life by looking at those whose lives were exemplary. • Discover we have things in common with people who are different from us. • Expand our knowledge of history through the lens of people who were there. Mark Twain said, “Truth is stranger than fiction.”Certainly, the real lives of notable people are every bit as fascinating—if not more so—than anything a novelist could dream up.

10 WebsiteCompass Social Media Basics Granfluencers have had decades to collect knowledge from many areas of life. Here’s just a partial list of the topics they cover: • Life stories, inspiration, and wisdom from decades past • Family and relationship advice for new parents and grandparents • Nostalgia in the form of stories, photos, or videos about historical moments • Cooking secrets from years of experience in the kitchen • Other hobbies and passions, such as sports or crafts • Fashion and style, especially challenging stereotypes of older people • Helpful life hacks that feel like good advice from a kindly older relative • Wellness and self-care, including mental health strategies and their own personal journeys • Adventures, such as one granfluencer who shares her life living and traveling in a van If you’re on social media for comedy, granfluencers have plenty to offer here as well. According to Kim Komando, over 5 million people are subscribed to Retirement House (@retirementhouse on TikTok), a group of six actors over age 70 who live together in a home with plenty of laughs. They participate in TikTok trends and “also provide some hysterical relationship advice.” How Granfluencers Benefit Like standard influencers, granfluencers’ reasons for starting and continuing their channels vary. One said that making videos gets him up in the morning. Another said she started posting content simply because she wanted to tell her story. What they all have in common is that sharing something from their life works for them on one or more levels. Granfluencers also get monetary rewards, with one post paying up to $150,000. Granfluencers Take Social Media by Storm Older content creators offer wisdom, warmth, and wit A “granfluencer” is a grandparent (or other older individual) who has gained a significant following on one or more social media platforms. Like standard influencers, they cover a wide range of topics.

WebsiteCompass 11 More typical is a total income of around $500 per month, and for seniors with limited resources, that amount can make a big difference. They may also get brand deals from big names—like skincare company CeraVe, Hyundai Motor Company, and yogurt company Chobani—that support them even more. Another benefit for granfluencers (and their followers) is the process of creating a better bond among generations. According to HypeAuditor, “In a world that can sometimes feel divided between generations, content from older individuals can bridge the gap and foster inter-generational understanding and empathy.” WhoWatches Them If you think fans of granfluencers are all fellow older folks, think again. Most fans of granfluencers are young adults who may view these elderly creators as wise mother or father figures. Granfluencers offer information, such as memories of past decades, that can help younger people gain valuable perspectives on the world. Another reason granfluencers are big with younger viewers is their genuine approach. According to The Social Standard, “We’re moving away from heavily planned, staged, and edited content to much more authentic content. Audiences are looking for content that lifts up new voices, shares new perspectives, and overall makes them feel good inside.” The Female Factor Female granfluencers in particular are getting a lot of attention for helping to counteract cultural messages that devalue women as they age. According to BuzzFeed, “There’s been a huge uptick in positive content around aging thanks to photos and videos offered by older women celebrities.” Women over 50 are showing up in ways that might have been unexpected in times past, including as finance experts, fashion influencers, fitness gurus, and proponents of natural aging. Given that there are more women over 50 now than at any time in history, this phenomenon could more accurately be called a movement than a trend. Granfluencers toWatch Check out some of these popular granfluencers: • Helen VanWinkle (@baddiewinkle on Instagram) – sharing glamour with fun photos and sassy captions • CookingWith Lynja (@cookingwithlynja on YouTube) – cooking everything from butterscotch brownies to babyback ribs • Babs (@brunchwithbabs on TikTok) – “internet grandma” sharing household and cooking tips • Ting Ma (@tingmystyle on Instagram) – offering fitness, fashion, and beauty tips • Grandma’s Garden (@msgrandmasgarden on TikTok) – gardening and cooking healthy food • Lindy’s Awesome Van Adventure (@l.a.v.alindysawesomevanadv3428 on YouTube) – sharing her adventures as a retired senior living in a van • Old Man Steve (@omsteve on TikTok) – sharing daily activities like completing puzzles and caring for plants How to Become a Granfluencer Are you an older individual who likes what granfluencers do? You can become one, too. Here are a few tips for getting started: • Find a topic you’re genuinely interested in and think about your unique take on it. • Create a high-level plan for what you want to communicate, then think about specific posts to support it. • Start with social media platforms you already use. Consider Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, or YouTube. • Create an inviting profile with a fun photo and succinct description of what you share. • Make your first post! See what kind of response you get and adjust your approach to make the next one better. • Build a following by responding to comments and engaging in private conversations with your viewers. • Keep at it long enough to find out if you’re gaining influence. Then evaluate if it’s something you want to continue. One great thing about being a granfluencer is the“gran”part. If you get stuck, ask the young people in your life for advice.

12 WebsiteCompass How to Find and Meet Granfluencers If you’re an influencer yourself and looking for collaboration opportunities with older content providers, follow these steps to find and meet them. TUTORIAL How to find granfluencers The process for finding granfluencers is similar to that for finding other types of content providers. 1. Start where you’re already comfortable. For example, if you post most of your content on YouTube, look there for older contributors in your area of expertise. 2. Expand to other outlets such as Instagram and TikTok to widen your search. 3. Finally, use your platform to put the word out that you’re seeking influencers over a certain age and ask your followers to make suggestions. TUTORIAL How to meet granfluencers The big takeaway here is to be respectful, as you would with any other influencer you’re trying to meet. 1. When you’ve found a granfluencer you’d like to work with, start by looking into their past work and getting an understanding of what they’re trying to achieve. 2. Think carefully about what a potential collaboration might look like. Rather than saying, “Let’s explore,” come up with a pitch. 3. When you’re ready, send relevant links to your work. Share your pitch but let them know you’re open to other ideas. 4. Invite but don’t pressure them to respond. If you haven’t heard back from them in a week or two, consider reaching out again. Social Media Basics

WebsiteCompass 13 Sweepstakes scams are among the most highly reported to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). A typical loss is over $900, but you can learn how to spot the signs and avoid becoming a victim. Only Criminals Win in Sweepstakes Scams The phrase, “You get a prize!” isn’t always good news Legitimate Contest Facts Real sweepstakes do exist. Here are some things to remember about them. • You must enter to win. A legitimate sweepstakes would never inform you that you have won a contest you didn’t enter. • Nothing bad will happen if you don’t participate. Legitimate sweepstakes will never mention negative consequences if you don’t respond to their communication immediately. • You will never be required to pay. You should never be asked to pay money or provide private financial information to enter a legitimate sweepstakes. Finally, winning isn’t guaranteed. In fact, you enter a legitimate sweepstakes knowing there is a high chance that you won’t win. How the ScamsWork In contrast to the practices described above, sweepstakes scams use malicious tactics. For example, they may disguise snail mail to make it look like it’s coming from a trusted source. These mailings may have fancy fonts, seals, and official-looking signatures. But their purpose is to tell you that you have “won” a sweepstakes, in hopes you will follow instructions to fork over payment to claim your “prize.” Phishing emails use the same tactics and goals. They inform you that you have won big and must provide money, a credit card number, or other financial information to collect the prize. The same strategy can be deployed using phone calls, text messages, or social media. Telltale Signs Scammers have come up with sophisticated and effective ways to con you out of your money. But you can outsmart them by learning their tricks. Watch for these telltale signs: You never entered the contest. If someone informs you that you have won a contest Back to Basics

Back to Basics 14 WebsiteCompass that you never entered—especially if they also tell you that you need to provide payment or something else of value to collect your prize—it’s almost certainly a scam. You are addressed generically. When you enter a legitimate contest, you provide your name and other identifying information. If you receive mail or other communication that addresses you as “Sir” or “Madam,” it’s because the sender doesn’t know anything about you. You receive an unexpected check from an unknown source. Some scammers will send you a check from out of the blue, tell you to deposit it, and direct you to send a portion of it to a third party. By the time your bank informs you the check you deposited is bad, you’re already out the sum you sent. You are rushed into action. Scammers will push you to claim your “prize” immediately to quickly get their hands on your money or financial information. Other Scams to Avoid Sweepstakes scams are just one style of deception that criminals can use to trick you out of your money or financial information. To avoid becoming a victim, learn about others they may deploy. Here are a few to watch out for this year: Check cooking. In this scam, thieves steal paper checks and, using chemicals, wash away the name of the recipient and the dollar amount. Leaving the valid signature in place, they then fill in a new name and amount. To stay safe: Bring checks to be mailed to the post office instead of dropping them in a mailbox and continually monitor your checking account. Voiceprint scam. Here, the scammers get you on the phone and make a recording of your voice, which they use to impersonate you. For example, they can use it on a call to your financial institution to move funds from your account to theirs. To stay safe: Don’t answer phone calls, especially from numbers you don’t recognize. Anyone who knows or does business with you will likely have other ways to reach you. Paris Olympics scam. Criminals often use current events to play their tricks. One example is a scammer hacking the email account of someone you know to email you with a message saying the person is at the Olympics in Paris, got their wallet stolen, and needs gift cards or cash. To stay safe: With urgent requests, resist the impulse to act immediately. Contact the person another way, such as via text message, to verify the story. Publishers Clearing House Scams Some sweepstakes scammers are using a well-known name, Publishers Clearing House (PCH), to get victims to think they have legitimately won a large sum of money. The criminals send their official-looking checks to unsuspecting people and inform them that, before the check can be cashed, the recipient must send in tens of thousands of dollars to cover taxes and “fees.” Alternatively, they may request personal financial information or other valuable things like gift cards. Not surprisingly, once they are paid, the scammers disappear, and the check receiver gets nothing. This scam works because PCH is a legitimate entity that does pay out cash awards. Protect yourself by checking with PCH if you receive something that looks like it’s from them, and never paying to collect any kind of prize.

WebsiteCompass 15 TUTORIAL What to do if you paid a scammer If you paid a scammer through any means, here are some ways you can get your money back. 1. If you paid with a credit or debit card, contact the issuing bank and tell them it was a fraudulent charge. Often you can have the transaction reversed. 2. If a scammer made an unauthorized transfer from your bank account, contact the bank and ask them to reverse the transaction. 3. If you paid with a gift card, keep all the paperwork associated with it, contact the issuing company, let them know the card was used in a scam, and ask for a refund. 4. If you sent a wire transfer through Western Union or a similar company, contact them, tell them it was a fraudulent transaction, and ask for your money back. 5. If you sent money using a money transfer app like Venmo, report to the company the fraudulent transaction, and ask to have the payment reversed. If a credit or debit card is linked to the app, contact the issuing bank as well. 6. If you sent cash through the U.S. mail system, contact the U.S. Postal Inspection Service and ask them to intercept the package. TUTORIAL What to do if you gave a scammer personal information Once a scammer has your personal or financial information, they can continue to use it. But there are steps you can take to make it much more difficult. 1. If you gave away credentials to get into a specific account, such as a bank account, immediately change your password to one that is highly secure. If multi-factor authentication is available on the account, make sure you have it active. 2. In other situations, go to to get steps to take in your specific situation. You can use this site if identity theft has occurred, or if someone has your personal information and you’re concerned it might lead to identity theft. 3. In all situations, consider freezing your credit, which prevents criminals from opening new accounts in your name. 4. You can also report the fraud to the FTC. To do so, visit If you become a scam victim, act immediately to minimize the impact of the scam. How to Minimize the Impact of a Scam

16 WebsiteCompass However, there are exceptions. You’ll probably want to keep your printer if you work from home, ship a lot of packages and need labels, or frequently print items for crafting or children’s projects. A printer can also make sense if you’re one of those people who simply just don’t trust technology as much as a sheet of paper you can hold in your hand. Outdated Reasons for Printers For many years, a home printer was considered essential for tasks including theses: • Printing boarding passes, event tickets, and the like • Document signing • Income tax preparation • Scanning • Printing photos Now these activities can either be done digitally—such as presenting a boarding pass or event ticket on your phone—or you can have the printing done elsewhere. Where to Get Things Printed If you decide to get rid of your home printer, there will still be the occasional times when you need to print a document or make a few copies. Here are some commonly available options. Public libraries. This is a good place to start. Most public libraries offer free or low-cost printing, sometimes to people without a library card. Check out your local library’s website for more information about printing services and costs. Shipping or courier centers. Places like FedEx and The UPS Store often provide printing services, whether you need huge printing jobs like banners and posters, or just need a document of a few pages printed. Keep in mind that the computers and printers are accessed by all the staff, so these places are not the best option if you need to print documents with sensitive information. You May Not Need a Home Printer There are ways to avoid owning this annoying piece of equipment Let’s face it. People love to hate printers. The ink cartridges are ridiculously expensive, the paper jams at inopportune times, and they take up a bunch of space on your desk. Can you get along without a printer at home? These days, many people can. Beyond the Basics

WebsiteCompass 17 Office supply stores. These types of stores, such as Office Depot and Staples, have print centers inside them. You can start the process online and pick up the documents later, or bring a flash drive to the store and have documents printed on the same day. You can also bring documents into the store to be copied. Office supply stores typically provide other services like binding, stapling, and lamination, etc. Your office. Printing personal documents at your workplace may or may not be an option, depending on your employer and the rules in place. Many offices do allow a small amount of personal printing, so it’s worth exploring if you plan to get rid of your home printer. However, don’t use the office printer for anything you don’t want your coworkers or employer to know about—like an application for another job. You wouldn’t want sensitive documents to be accidentally seen by others. Ditch Your Printer the RightWay Getting rid of your old home printer doesn’t mean throwing it into the trash bin. Toxic chemicals are in the printer ink and toner cartridges, along with the plastic in the housing, metals in the printed circuits, and other components. All these can be a threat to the environment. You may be able to sell, donate, or recycle your printer. Do some online research to see what’s available in your community. Some cities and towns even have “rage rooms” where you can use a sledgehammer to destroy inanimate objects. Printers are, unsurprisingly, a very popular choice. Printer Ink Might Be the Most Expensive Liquid You Can Buy Even the cheapest ink in printer replacement cartridges—at about $13 an ounce—costs more than twice as much as Dom Pérignon Champagne. The priciest is closer to $95 an ounce, which would make it $12,160 per gallon. No wonder you’ve been grumbling about the high price of printer ink for years. Why is printer ink so expensive? It’s primarily because the manufacturers of printers and their corresponding inks are using the same high-profit tactic as razor and blade makers. This tactic, known as the razor-and-blade model, was first used by shaving kit manufacturer Gillette, which sold its disposable razor handles for almost nothing only to build the true price into the cost of replacement blade cartridges. For example, a consumer-grade inkjet printer may cost just $70 to buy, but it costs $120 for the manufacturer to make. They sell you the printer at a loss, then get you to pay it off (and then some) over time by buying the replacement cartridges. If you needed one more reason to become a printerless household, now you have it!

18 WebsiteCompass FAQs Dr. Webbie Answers your frequently asked questions QUESTION: What makes something trend on social media? ANSWER: A trending topic or hashtag is one that is popular on social media at a given moment, and it’s the result of algorithms used by the platform to identify popular topics and keywords. These algorithms are designed to analyze the activity—such as the number of likes, comments, shares, and searches. This determines the content and topics generating the most engagement. Once a topic reaches a certain threshold of activity, it’s labeled as trending and prominently displayed on the platform’s homepage. There are a variety of factors that contribute to a topic, post, or hashtag trending on social media. They include: • Relevance: Trending topics are often related to current events, news stories, or pop culture. If something is timely and relevant, it’s more likely to generate engagement and become trending. • Virality: Social media is all about sharing content. If something is shared widely, it’s more likely to start trending. Viral content can quickly spread across platforms, leading to a surge in engagement and interest. • Controversy: Controversial topics or issues often generate a lot of engagement as people debate and discuss their opinions. This can lead to a topic becoming trending, even if it’s not necessarily popular. • Influencers: Influencers with large followings can have a significant impact on what becomes trending on social media. If an influencer shares a post or uses a hashtag, it can quickly gain traction and start to trend. The trends you see on your platforms are based on your location, who you follow, and the content you like. QUESTION: How can I determine if a website is credible? ANSWER: All of us have encountered websites that led to false information. When browsing recreationally, this may not be much of an issue. However, when we’re seeking vitally important information about topics such as health concerns, it’s imperative that we stick to websites that are factual and credible. Look for the following: • Accuracy: The author or entity that created the content should be crystal clear. This is usually presented in the “Mission” or “About Us” section of the website. There should also be a way to contact the author/organization. If you can’t determine who or what generated the content, it’s probably because they don’t want you to know. • Authority: The credentials and expertise of the author or organization should be available, and sources should be listed for any “facts,” graphs, or statistical information. Sometimes it’s helpful to search within .edu, .org, or .gov domains. • Currency: When was the last time the website was updated? If there are dead links or obviously outdated content, this can be a sign that the website isn’t being properly maintained. • Security: Checking for security indicators is another great way to assess a website’s credibility. For starters, HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is usually more secure than HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) because it uses encryption methods to protect your data. HTTPS also authenticates your connection, which ensures that the website you’re interacting with is legitimate.

WebsiteCompass 19 Glossary ADDRESS BOOK - A feature of an email program, or a stand-alone application, that stores and organizes a list of email addresses and other contact information a computer user frequently uses. ALERTS - Automatic notifications, often by email, that news on topics you’ve specified is now online. APP - Shorthand for application, app is popularly used to describe software that enhances the usefulness of mobile phones, media players, and social networking sites. AUTO-COMPLETE - Feature that predicts a word or phrase before the user types it in completely. BLOG - (short for Weblog) Writings similar to a journal or diary by individuals that are posted to the internet. Someone who writes a blog is a “blogger.” BOOKMARK - A reference to a file or webpage you plan to frequently visit. Most internet browsers let you maintain and organize a list of bookmarks (also called “favorites” when using Microsoft Internet Explorer) to make it easy to return to them again. BOOLEAN PHRASES - Linking words or symbols in all caps that indicate the relationships of words to each other and refine online searches. BOTNET - A collection of compromised zombie computers running programs automatically under remote direction. BROADBAND - (Broad Bandwidth) A high-speed network connection capable of supporting a wide range of frequencies. BROWSER - A software program that is used to look at various kinds of internet resources. The most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari. BYTE - A group of eight bits that represent a character. Computer memory and disk capacity are measured in bytes. (A bit is the smallest unit of measurement for computer data.) CACHE - The hard drive space your browser uses to temporarily store webpages. When returning to a recently visited page, the browser can get a copy of it from the cache rather than the original server, saving time and network traffic. The larger amount of space you allocate for the cache, the more webpages can be stored. CELLULAR DATA - A way for your phone to access the internet that ’s offered by your mobile carrier. CHATBOT - A computer program that mimics conversations with humans. CHAT ROOM - A system where people can “chat” on a website through their browser. CLIENT - A computer or piece of software that requests information or services from a server. Your computer becomes a “client” when you connect to your ISP for a service such as surfing the internet or using email. COMPRESSION - A method by which data, images, and text can be stored using less disk space. After a file is compressed into a smaller file size, it will require less time to transmit over a network. CONTACT GROUP - A group of email addresses specified by a user. A contact group allows one to easily send a message to multiple recipients by entering the group name in the “To:” field. COOKIE - A piece of information sent by a Web server to be stored by your Web browser. Whenever the browser makes additional requests to that server, the server is able to use the information stored in the “cookie” to customize a response based on data from a previous connection. CROWDSOURCING – Meeting a challenge by asking many people—via the internet—if they can help. CROWDTURFING – Organized, for-pay efforts that hire people to create accounts under false names and post certain reviews or push a brand or website. CSS - (short for Cascading Style Sheet) A specification for the presentation of html documents that allow Web developers to easily control the style and layout of single or multiple webpages. DNS - (Domain Name Server) A computer which translates a domain name into a set of numbers called an IP address. DOMAIN NAME - A “domain name” is a unique name that is used to represent and help locate a specific Web server on the internet. For example, “” is a domain name. Each domain name corresponds to a set of numbers called an IP address. DSL - (Digital Subscriber Line) Allows users to download and upload data over standard telephone lines. It provides a constant internet connection over which users can receive voice and data simultaneously. It isn’t available in many areas because it requires a short distance to the DSL provider’s origin. E-LEARNING - Any kind of learning that is provided through the digital technology used by computers. E-PATIENT - An internet user who looks online for health information. EBOOK - (short for Electronic Book) A book in digital format that can be read on a computer or other digital device. EDU - When these letters appear as the last part of a Web address, it indicates that the host computer is run by an educational institution, usually in the United States. EMOTICON - (or Smileys) Short for emotion icon. Symbols composed of punctuation that help convey how an email message should be interpreted by the reader. Ex. :-) = Happy, :-( = Sad EMOJIS - Icons or small digital images that are used online to express emotions or an idea. E-ZINE - A periodic publication distributed by email or posted on a website. FAQ - Short for Frequently Asked Question. FAVORITE - See Bookmark. FILTER BUBBLES - Process by which websites show you search results and feed items based on your past choices and other factors. FIREWALL - A specially programmed computer that connects networks (usually a local network to the internet) and for security reasons lets only certain kinds of data in and out. FIREWIRE - (Also known as IEEE 1394) A fast type of computer connection–similar to USB 2–that allows for high rates of data transfer. FLASH - A multimedia program for viewing and creating interactive and animated content on the Web. FORUM - A section of a website where users post and read topics of common interest. FREEWARE - Software provided at no charge by its originator. FTP - (File Transfer Protocol) A common method of transferring files between two computers connected over a network. FTP is a way to login to an internet server for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. Many publicly accessible internet sites allow their materials to be obtained using FTP. Most FTP sites require a user name and password. GIF - (Graphics Interchange Format) A file format that uses compression for saving and viewing images. GIGABYTE - A measure of computer storage capacity equal to 1,000 megabytes, or 1 billion bytes. GOV - When these letters appear as the last part of a Web address, it indicates that the host computer is run by a government body, probably in the U.S. HACKER - A person who tries to defeat computer security measures and break into websites and computers. HASHTAG - A word or phrase preceded by (#) and used to categorize social media messages. HISTORY - A browser feature which keeps track of Web resources that have been recently visited. HOME PAGE - (or Homepage) Originally, a Home Page was defined as the webpage your browser was set to use when it was started up. The more common meaning now refers to the main webpage for an organization, business, person or simply the main page out of a collection of webpages. HTML - (HyperText Markup Language) A coding language used to create hypertext documents for use on the Web. HTML files contain instructions on how your browser displays text, images, links and etc. HTML files usually end in “.htm” or “.html.” HTTP - (HyperText Transfer Protocol) The standard protocol for moving hypertext files across the internet. HYPERTEXT - Text that contains links to other documents. Words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by an internet user which causes another document to be retrieved and then displayed. INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) - A collection of unique objects represented and connected virtually. IP ADDRESS - A numeric address which identifies a particular computer or server over a network. ISP - (Internet Service Provider) An institution that provides access to the internet. JAVA - A network-oriented programming language specifically designed for writing programs that can be downloaded to your computer and run. By using small Java programs called “applets,” webpages can include functions such as animations, calculators, chatrooms, games, etc. JAVASCRIPT - A programming language used to add interactive and dynamic features to webpages. It shares some characteristics with Java but is independent. JPEG - (or JPG) Named after the committee that created it, the Joint Photographic Experts Group, this is a file format that uses compression for saving and viewing images. LAN - (Local Area Network) A computer network limited to an immediate area, usually the same building or just one floor of a building. LINK - (short for Hyperlink) A hypertext connection that can take you to another document or another part of the same document. On the World Wide Web, links appear either as underlined text or as pictures/icons. To follow a link, double click on the underlined text or on the corresponding icon.